Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world. The term augmented reality is believed to have been coined in 1990 by Thomas Caudell, working atBoeing.
Research explores the application of computer-generated imagery in live-video streams as a way to enhance the perception of the real world. AR technology includes head-mounted displays and virtual retinal displays for visualization purposes, and construction of controlled environments containing sensors and actuators.
Augmented reality is considered an extension of virtual reality. Virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space in which players immerse themselves into that space and exceed the bounds of physical reality. In virtual reality, time, physical laws and material properties may no longer be thought of as true, in contrast to the real-world environment. Instead of considering AR and VR as exact opposite concepts, Milgram et al. claim them as the reality-virtual (RV) continuum (Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi and Kishino, 1994).
Ronald Azuma offered a definition in 1997: AR is about augmenting the real world environment with virtual information by improving people’s senses and skills. AR mixes virtual characters with the actual world. He identified three common characteristics of AR scenes: combination of the real and virtual, interactive in real-time, and having the scenes registered in 3D.
On a graph, the origin R at the bottom left denotes unmodified reality. A continuum across the Virtuality axis V includes reality augmented with additional information (AR), as well as virtual reality augmented by reality (augmented virtuality or AV). Unmediated AV simulations are constrained to match the real world behaviorally if not in contents.
The mediality axis measures modification of AV, AR and mixes thereof. Moving away from the origin on this axis, the depicted world becomes increasingly different from reality. Diagonally opposite from R are virtual worlds that have no connection to reality. (at right) It includes the virtuality reality continuum (mixing) but also, in addition to additive effects, also includes modulation and/or diminishment of reality. Mediation encompasses deliberate and/or unintentional modifications.
AR has become common in sports telecasting. The yellow “first down” line seen in television broadcasts of American football games shows the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down using the 1st & Ten system. The real-world elements are the football field and players, and the virtual element is the yellow line, which augments the image in real time. AR is also used in association football to show the result (or an advertisement) in the center circle. It is also used to display offside situations. Similarly, inice hockey an AR colored trail showed location and direction of the puck, but was dismissed by hockey purists. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches display sponsored images. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. As an example of mediated (diminished) reality, the network may hide a real message or replace a real ad message with a virtual message.
Handheld video games
Nintendo 3DS and PlayStation Vita come with “AR Cards” (fiduciary markers) allowing to play games which use a device camera (Nintendogs + Cats, Tetris Axis, AR Combat DigiQ, Bravely Default: Flying Fairy).
Head-up displays in AR cars such as some BMW 7 Series models or on airplanes are typically integrated into the windshield.. Passenger planes, like the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the newest Boeing 737 Next Generation feature fold-down Head-up displays coming from just in front of the pilot’s head so he doesn’t have to look down while he is flying.
The main hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display, sensors and input devices. These elements, specificallyCPU, display, camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer, GPS, solid state compass are often present in modernsmartphones, which make them prospective AR platforms.
Some examples of spatial augmented reality displays include shader lamps, mobile projectors, virtual tables, and smart projectors, described by O. Bimber and R. Raskar in 2005. Shader lamps, developed by Raskar et al. in 1999, mimic and augment reality by projecting imagery onto neutral objects, providing the opportunity to enhance the object’s appearance with materials of a simple unit- a projector, camera, and sensor. Handheld projectors further this goal by enabling cluster configurations of environment sensing, reducing the need for additional peripheral sensing.
Other tangible applications include table and wall projections. One such innovation, the Extended Virtual Table, separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle. Virtual showcases, which employ beam-splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays, provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and the real. Altogether, current augmented reality display technology can be applied to improve design and visualization, or function as scientific simulations and tools for education or entertainment. Many more implementations and configurations make spatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative.
A head-mounted display (HMD) places images of both the physical world and registered virtual graphical objects over the user’s view of the world. The HMDs are either optical see-through or video see-through. Optical see-through employs half-silver mirrors to pass images through the lens and overlay information to be reflected into the user’s eyes. The HMD must be tracked with sensor that provides sixdegrees of freedom. This tracking allows the system to align virtual information to the physical world. The main advantage of HMD AR is the user’s immersive experience. The graphical information is slaved to the view of the user. The most common products employed are as follows: MicroVision Nomad, Sony Glasstron, Vuzix, Lumus, LASTER Technologies, and I/O Displays.
While the The New York Times reported Google wished to start selling virtual eyeglasses not only for entertainment but also for information and augmented reality by the end of 2012, more recent statements from Google about “Project Glass” (as it is now called) have said a 2012 commercial release is unlikely.
Handheld displays employ a small display that fits in a user’s hand. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employed fiduciary markers, and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometer–gyroscope. Today SLAM markerless trackers such as PTAM are starting to come into use. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The two main advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and ubiquitous nature of camera phones. The disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times as well as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye.
Instead of the user wearing or carrying the display such as with head-mounted displays or handheld devices, Spatial Augmented Reality(SAR) makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information onto physical objects. The key difference in SAR is that the display is separated from the users of the system. Because the displays are not associated with each user, SAR scales naturally up to groups of users, thus allowing for collocated collaboration between users. SAR has several advantages over traditional head-mounted displays and handheld devices. The user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes. This makes spatial AR a good candidate for collaborative work, as the users can see each other’s faces. A system can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear a head-mounted display.
Spatial AR does not suffer from the limited display resolution of current head-mounted displays and portable devices. A projector based display system can simply incorporate more projectors to expand the display area. Where portable devices have a small window into the world for drawing, a SAR system can display on any number of surfaces of an indoor setting at once. The drawbacks, however, are that SAR systems of projectors do not work so well in sunlight and also require a surface on which to project the computer-generated graphics. Augmentations cannot simply hang in the air as they do with handheld and HMD-based AR. The tangible nature of SAR, though, makes this an ideal technology to support design, as SAR supports both a graphical visualisation and passive haptic sensation for the end users. People are able to touch physical objects, and it is this process that provides the passive haptic sensation.
Modern mobile augmented reality systems use one or more of the following tracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors, accelerometers, GPS, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, RFID and wireless sensors. These technologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. Most important is the position and orientation of the user’s head. Tracking the user’s hand(s) or a handheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique.
The computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and position augmentations.
Software and algorithms
A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independent from the camera, from camera images. That process is called image registration and is part of Azuma’s definition of augmented reality.
Image registration uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking. Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry. Usually those methods consist of two parts. First detect interest points, orfiduciary markers, or optical flow in the camera images. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blob detection, edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods.
The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained in the first stage. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiduciary markers) present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be precalculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. If no information about scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective (epipolar) geometry, geometric algebra, rotation representation with exponential map, kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization, robust statistics.
Augmented reality has many applications, and many areas can benefit from the usage of AR technology. At the beginning AR had a military, industrial, and medical focus but soon it was introduced for commercial and entertainment usage.
Complex tasks such as assembly, maintenance, and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. For example, labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system. Assembly lines gain many benefits from the usage of AR; let’s not forget that the coined of the term augmented reality came from two scientists working for Boeing so that the workers could have an easier job wiring. Boeing is not the only company using AR in assembly, BMW is known for incorporating this technology in their assembly line to improve the welding process of their cars. Volkswagen also uses AR to analyze interfering edges, plan production lines and workshops, compare variance and verify parts. Big machines are difficult to maintain because of the multiple layers or structures they have. With the use of AR the workers can complete their job in a much easier way because AR permits them to look through the machine as if it was with x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away.
AR can provide the surgeon with information of the heartbeat, the blood pressure, the state of the patient’s organ, etc. It can also help the doctor identify the problem with the patient right away. This approach works in a similar as the technicians doing maintenance work. Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopyprobes or open NMR devices. AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother’s womb. See also Mixed reality.
AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can be displayed on the car’s windshield indicating information of where the user is going. Not only can information of how to get to the place be offered but so can information about the weather or the terrain. AR can provide traffic information to drivers as well as alert the driver in case of an emergency or highlight objects on the road that might not be caught by the driver’s eyes at a first glance. It can also be used in the sea where fishermen can use the technology to display information about the amount of fish that are in the area and how to get to them.
Aboard naval and maritime vessels, AR can allow bridge watch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a ship’s heading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks.
In the area of industrial design AR can provide crucial help, AR can help designer experience the final product before is complete or can help with the testing part of it. Volkswagen is already using AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery. But AR can also be used to visualize and modify a car body curvature or the engine layout of it. AR can also be used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups for efficiently finding discrepancies between them.
Military and emergency services
In combat AR provide useful information to the soldiers on where they are, how many enemies are surrounding them and it can spot an enemy that the soldier might not be looking at. AR can be a third eye for the soldier indicating him if there is someone on his back. Not only this but with the usage of AR a soldier doesn’t have to stop to look at a map since the technology can indicate him at all time his location without him taking his eyes out of the field. Snipers can benefit particularly because they can get the information they need to make an accurate shooting without taking the sight of target.
AR can help create art in real time integrating reality such as painting, drawing and modeling. AR art technology has helped disabled individuals to continue pursuing their passion. Recently, Alaskan artist Nathan Shafer created a global warming-oriented AR project, called Exit Glacier AR Terminus. In this project, AR technology (is this case, smartphones) walks the viewer through various positions of South Central Alaska’s Exit Glacier, going back three decades. Belgian photographer, Liesje Reyskens recently commissioned Augmented Reality Agency Kudan to produce an AR art installation at the Albus Lux gallery – the AR app recognised her photography and overlaid live animation video to enhance the gallery experience.
AR can simulate planned construction projects.
Tourism and sightseeing
Augmented reality is being used in application for touring. In this case AR is used to highlight information of important places and provide the connection between the real world with an historic event, meaning that historical events such as battle reenactments can be augmented onto current landscapes. AR can also provide information of museums and monuments.
The use of AR in this area has enhanced the experience of users when they go traveling by providing not only information of the place they are but comments made by other users that have been there before. AR system in the touring industry can connect different platforms to provide a richer experience to the final user of the system.
Another application given to AR in this field is the possibility for users to rebuild ruins, buildings, or even landscapes as they formerly existed.
In an office
AR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members via conferences with real and virtual participants. This technology can also be useful in the case of discussing plans and progress data such as, environmental planners discussing geographical data and urban development, or in a distributed control rooms such as Air Traffic Control operating through a common visualization.
In entertainment not only video games have improve because of AR but also sport broadcasting. Swimming pools, football fields, race tracks and other sports environments are well-known and easily prepared, which video see-through augmentation through tracked camera feeds easy. One example is the Fox-Trax system, used to highlight the location of a hard-to-see hockey puck as it moves rapidly across the ice, but AR is also applied to annotate racing cars, snooker ball trajectories, life performances, etc.
AR can enhance concert and theater performances. For example, artists can allow listeners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to that of other bands/groups of users.
The gaming industry has benefited a lot from the development of this technology, a number of games have been developed for prepared indoor environments. Early AR games also include AR air hockey, collaborative combat against virtual enemies, and an AR-enhanced pool games. A significant number of games incorporate AR in it and with the introduction of smartphone this has had a bigger impact.
AR can be used to display certain products at another way. For example, the lego-boxes in the lego-store at Schaumburg use image recognition on a product’s packaging to show the product when it’s assembled. AR can also be used as an aid in picking clothing through a kiosk. On the web, AR ecommerce software, like the Webcam Social Shopper, is designed to allow retailers to integrate AR into their online retail sites.
Usage of AR to promote products via interactive AR applications is becoming popular now. For example Nissan (2008 LA Auto Show), Best Buy (2009), and others used webcam based AR to connect 3D models with printed materials. There are numerous examples of connecting mobile AR to outdoor advertising
- Ivan Sutherland invented the first AR head-mounted display at Harvard University.
- Steven Feiner, Professor at Columbia University, is a leading pioneer of augmented reality, and author of the first paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA (the Knowledge-based Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistant), along with Blair MacIntyre andDoree Seligmann.
- L.B. Rosenberg developed one of the first known AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, while working at the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Labs in 1991, and published first study of how an AR system can enhance human performance.
- Dieter Schmalstieg and Daniel Wagner jump started the field of AR on mobile phones. They developed the first marker tracking systems for mobile phones and PDAs.
- Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski develop the Tinmith system in 1998. They along with Steve Feiner with his MARS system pioneer outdoor augmented reality.
- Reinhold Behringer performed important early work in image registration for augmented reality, and prototype wearable testbeds for augmented reality. He also co-organized the First IEEE International Symposium on Augmented Reality in 1998 (IWAR’98), and co-edited one of the first books on augmented reality.
The primary academic conference in the field is the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR).
- 1st International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR’98), San Francisco, United States, November 1998.
- 2nd International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR’99), San Francisco, United States, October 1999.
- 1st International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR’99), Yokohama, Japan, March 1999.
- 2nd International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR’01), Yokohama, Japan, March 2001.
- 1st International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2000), Munich, Germany, October 2000.
- 2nd International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2001), New York, New York, United States, October 2001.
- 1st International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2002), Darmstadt, Germany, October 2002.
- 2nd International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2003), Tokyo, Japan, October 2003.
- 3rd International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2004), Arlington, Virginia, United States, November 2004.
- 4th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2005), Vienna, Austria, October 2005.
- 5th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2006), Santa Barbara, United States, October 2006.
- 6th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2007), Nara, Japan, November 2007.
- 7th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2008), Cambridge, United Kingdom, September 2008.
- 8th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2009), Orlando, Florida, United States, October 2009.
- 9th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2010), Seoul, Korea, October 2010.
- 10th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2011), Basel, Switzerland October 2011
- 11th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2012), Atlanta, Georgia, United States, November 2012
An additional Augmented Reality Conference, called ARE, has been held in Santa Clara, California since 2010. ARE focuses on Business, Marketing and Technology related to the Augmented Reality field.
- Woodrow Barfield, and Thomas Caudell, eds. Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001. ISBN 0-8058-2901-6.
- Oliver Bimber and Ramesh Raskar. Spatial Augmented Reality: Merging Real and Virtual Worlds. A K Peters, 2005. ISBN 1-56881-230-2.
- Michael Haller, Mark Billinghurst and Bruce H. Thomas. Emerging Technologies of Augmented Reality: Interfaces and Design. Idea Group Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-59904-066-2, publisher listing
- Rolf R. Hainich. “The end of Hardware: A Novel Approach to Augmented Reality” 2nd ed.: Booksurge, 2006. ISBN 1-4196-5218-4. 3rd ed. (“Augmented Reality and Beyond”): Booksurge, 2009, ISBN 1-4392-3602-X.
- Stephen Cawood and Mark Fiala. Augmented Reality: A Practical Guide, 2008, ISBN 1-934356-03-4
- Lester Madden. “Professional Augmented Reality Browsers for Smartphones: Programming for junaio, Layar and Wikitude”, 2011,ISBN 978-1-119-99281-3
- Tony Mullen. “Prototyping Augmented Reality”, 2011, ISBN 978-1-118-03663-1
- Borko Furht. “Handbook of Augmented Reality”, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4614-0063-9
- Raghav Sood. “Pro Android Augmented Reality”, 2012 ISBN 978-1-4302-3945-1
- R. Behringer, G. Klinker,. D. Mizell (eds.). Augmented Reality – Placing Artificial Objects in Real Scenes. Proceedings of IWAR ’98. A.K.Peters, Natick, 1999. ISBN 1-56881-098-9
- The television series Dennō Coil depicts a near-future where children use AR glasses to enhance their environment with games and virtual pets.
- In the Terminator movie series, all Terminator models, beginning with T-800 series, use augmented reality systems to “see”.
- The television series Firefly depicts numerous AR applications, including a real-time medical scanner which allows a doctor to use his hands to manipulate a detailed and labeled projection of a patient’s brain.
- In the 1993 ABC miniseries Wild Palms, a Scientology-like organization used holographic projectors to overlay virtual reality images over physical reality.
- In the movie Iron Man, Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.) uses an augmented reality system to design his super-powered suit. The suit itself also uses augmented reality technology.
- In the Philippines, during their first automated elections (2010), ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs used augmented reality during the counting of votes for all national and local candidates and in delivering news reports. ABS-CBN still uses augmented reality in itsTV Patrol and Bandila news programs. In year 2011, TV5 is now also using augmented reality in its flagship newscast Aksyon for the news related informations.
- In Minority Report, Tom Cruise stands in front of a supercomputer using AR technology.
- In the movie RoboCop, RoboCop uses Augmented Reality tech via his head-mounted display to get into the details of a particular person or status quo.
- In the movie, They Live, aliens on Earth use a hypnotic radio frequency causing the human population to see generated images and adverts which mask billboards that actually contain subliminal messaging. Curiously, it takes wearing a head-mounted display (in this case, a pair of sunglasses) in order not to be able to see the AR.
- NBC School Pride debuts AR alive: Letters Alive invented by Randall Self in the Communication & Media Arts High School in Detroit, Michigan
- The television series Fractale occurs in a world where AR is a part of everyday life thanks to the Fractale System.
- In Yu-Gi-Oh!‘s series Yu-Gi-Oh! Zexal, duelists uses AR to project duel cards which can be viewed when players wear D-Gazers.
- The unnamed fictional extraterrestrial species featured in the Predator (franchise) wear an AR Head-mounted display that allows them to see in multiple spectra of light, as well as acting as a HUD interface with a worn computer.
- The books Halting State by Charles Stross and Rainbows End by Vernor Vinge and the Daemon series by Daniel Suarez include augmented reality primarily in the form of virtual overlays over the real world. Halting State mentions Copspace, which is used by cops, and the use by gamers to overlay their characters onto themselves during a gaming convention. Rainbows End mentions outdoor overlays based on popular fictional universes from H. P. Lovecraft and Terry Pratchett among others. The Daemon series features the “Darknet”, which connects human followers and allows them to create their own ranking system and economy among other features.
- William Gibson‘s novel Spook Country coined the term “Geohacking”, where artists use a mix of GPS and 3D graphics technology to embed rendered meshes in real world landscapes.
- In The Risen Empire, by Scott Westerfeld, most—if not all—people have their own “synesthesia“. An AR menu unique to the user that is projected in front of them, but they can only see their own synesthesia menus. It is controlled by hand gestures, blink patterns, where the user is looking, clicks of the tongue, etc.
- In the Greg Egan novel Distress, the ‘Witness’ software used to record sights and sounds experienced by the user can be set up to scan what the user is seeing and highlight people the user is looking out for.
- In the Revelation Space series of novels, Alastair Reynolds characters frequently employ “Entoptics” which are essentially a highly developed form of augmented reality, going so far as to entirely substitute natural perception.
- The book The California Voodoo Game by Larry Niven and Steve Barnes, the game players use LCD displays for what the book calls Dreamtime technology to add virtual overlays to the real world.
- The books Illium and Olympos by Dan Simmons refer to numerous vision and information functions that have been become incorporated into the human body through design (Though the humans in question have no knowledge of these functions, rediscovering them as the story progresses). Augmented reality is taken to an extreme in the ‘allnet’ function which bombards the viewer with a torrent of data about the surrounding environment.
- Certain gaming devices, such as the PlayStation Eye, Kinect, Nintendo 3DS, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation Vita and some mobile devices, use cameras to augment computer graphics onto live footage. The majority of AR software uses special cards which are read by the device to pinpoint where the graphics will form.
- The table top role-playing game, Shadowrun, introduced AR into its game world. Most of the characters in the game use viewing devices to interact with the AR world most of the time.
- Cybergeneration, a table top role-playing game by R. Talsorian, includes “virtuality”, an augmented reality created through v-trodes, cheap, widely available devices people wear at their temples.
- In the video game Heavy Rain, Norman Jayden, an FBI profiler, possesses a set of experimental augmented reality glasses called an “Added Reality Interface”, or ARI. It allows him to rapidly investigate crime scenes and analyze evidence, and Norman can use it as a form of entertainment. However, prolonged use will cause side effect such as hallucinations. At one point in the game, overuse of the ARI can kill Norman.
- In Dead Space the RIG worn by Isaac Clarke is thoroughly equipped with augmented reality technology, including a navigation system that projects a line along the best route to his destination, and a system that displays images, video and text in front of him.
- The Batman: Arkham City game uses AR.
- The Ubisoft game, Raving Rabbids: Alive & Kicking features AR.
- Hydrophobia (video game) from Dark Energy Digital features the MAVI (Mobile Automated Visual Interface), which is a tool used to enhance environmental geometry among other purposes.
- Bandai‘s 2008 Tuttuki Bako minigame system is described as featuring augmented reality.
In popular culture
- 1901: L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronic display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case ‘people’), it’s named a ‘character marker’.
- 1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.
- 1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a window into a virtual world.
- 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects for the first time.
- 1989: Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds.
- 1990: Tom Caudell coins the phrase ‘Augmented Reality’ while at Boeing helping workers assemble cables into aircraft.
- 1992: L.B. Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory—Armstrong, and demonstrates benefits to human performance.
- 1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first major paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface conference.
- 1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications of the ACM – Special issue on computer augmented environments, edited by Pierre Wellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold .
- 1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the first demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators. Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, “Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training”, 1999.
- 1994: Julie Martin creates first ‘Augmented Reality Theater production’, Dancing In Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts, features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time, projected into the same physical space and performance plane. The acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. The installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system.
- 1998: Spatial Augmented Reality introduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Raskar, Welch, Fuchs.
- 1999: Hirokazu Kato (加藤 博一) created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR later was further developed by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH.
- 2000: Bruce H. Thomas develops ARQuake, the first outdoor mobile AR game, demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable Computers.
- 2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Android phone.
- 2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha, bringing augmented reality to the web browser.
- 2009: project SixthSense from MIT showcased projection based wearable AR pendent device.
- 2011 : LASTER Technologies, a French start-up from University of Paris Sud (Orsay), has developed first augmented reality ski goggles in the market, demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH.
- Alternate reality game
- Augmented browsing
- Augmented reality-based testing
- Bionic contact lens
- Brain in a vat
- Computer-mediated reality
- Lifelike experience
- Video Mapping
- ^ Graham, M., Zook, M., and Boulton, A. “Augmented reality in urban places: contested content and the duplicity of code.”Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2012.00539.x 2012
- ^ “The interactive system is no longer a precise location, but the whole environment; interaction is no longer simply a face-to-screen exchange, but dissolves itself in the surrounding space and objects. Using an information system is no longer exclusively a conscious and intentional act.”Brian X. Chen (2009-08-25). “If You’re Not Seeing Data, You’re Not Seeing”.Wired. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- ^ a b R. Azuma, A Survey of Augmented Reality Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, pp. 355–385, August 1997.
- ^ Ronald T. Azuma (1997-08). “A Survey of Augmented Reality”. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments: 355–385.
- ^ http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~tamaldey/paper/medial.pdf
- ^ “F-35 Distributed Aperture System EO DAS.” Youtube.com. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- ^ Bimber, Oliver. “Spatial augmented reality : merging real and virtual worlds”. AK Peters.
- ^ Vuzix. Vuzix. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ LASTER Technologies. Laster.fr. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Bilton, Nick (22 February 2012). “Behind the Google Goggles, Virtual Reality”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-23., New York Times.
- ^ “Google Unveils Project Glass: Wearable Augmented-Reality Glasses”. Retrieved 2012-04-04., All Things D.
- ^ Feiner, Steve. “Augmented reality: a long way off?”. AR Week. Pocket-lint. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- ^ a b c Ramesh Raskar, Greg Welch, Henry Fuchs Spatially Augmented Reality, First International Workshop on Augmented Reality, Sept 1998
- ^ David Drascic of the University of Toronto is a developer ofARGOS: A Display System for Augmenting Reality. David also has a number of AR related papers on line, accessible from his home page.
- ^ Augmented reality brings maps to life 19 July 2005
- ^ Feiner, Steve. “Augmented reality: a long way off?”. AR Week. Pocket-lint.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- ^ Stationary systems can employ 6DOF track systems such as Polhemus, ViCON, A.R.T, or Ascension.
- ^ Tinmith
- ^ Augmented Reality Landscape 11 August 2012
- ^ The big idea:Augmented Reality. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com (15 May 2012). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Steve Henderson, Steven Feiner. “Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)”. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- ^ Peter Mountney, Stamatia Giannarou, Daniel Elson and Guang-Zhong Yang. “Optical Biopsy Mapping for Minimally Invasive Cancer Screening. In proc MICCAI(1), 2009, pp. 483–490”. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ “UNC Ultrasound/Medical Augmented Reality Research”.Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- ^ Tönnis, M, Sandor, C, Klinker, G, Lange, C and Bubb, H. Experimental evaluation of an augmented reality visualization for directing a car driver‟s attention. In ISMAR’05: Proc. 4th Int’l Symp. on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Vienna, Austria, 5–8 Oct. 2005. IEEE CS Press, pp. 56–59
- ^ GM’s Enhanced Vision System. Techcrunch.com (17 March 2010). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Cheney-Peters, Scott (12 April 2012). “CIMSEC: Google’s AR Goggles”. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
- ^ One such example of this phenomenon is called Eyewriterthat was developed in 2009 by Zachary Lieberman and a group formed by members of Free Art and Technology (FAT), OpenFrameworks and the Graffiti Research Lab to help a graffiti artist, who became paralyzed, draw again. Zachary Lieberman.“The Eyewriter”. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- ^ Kudan provided the Augmented Reality technology to power the Liesje Reyskens Augmented Art experience. Tom Wood.“Kudan Augmented Art”. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- ^ Anish Tripathi. “Augmented Reality: An Application for Architecture”. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- ^ Bartie, P and Mackaness, W. Development of a speech-based augmented reality system to support exploration of cityscape. Trans. GIS, 10(1):63–86, 2006
- ^ Patrick Dähne, John N. Karigiannis. “Archeoguide: System Architecture of a Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality System”. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- ^ The Hand of God is a good example of a collaboration system. Aaron Stafford, Wayne Piekarski, and Bruce H. Thomas. “Hand of God”. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ Benford, S, Greenhalgh, C, Reynard, G, Brown, C and Koleva, B. Understanding and constructing shared spaces with mixed-reality boundaries. ACM Trans. Computer-Human Interaction, 5(3):185–223, Sep. 1998
- ^ Cavallaro, R. The FoxTrax hockey puck tracking system. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 17 (2):6–12, Mar./Apr. 1997
- ^ Pop group Duran Duran included interactive AR projections in their stage show during their 2000 Pop Trash concert tour. Pair, J., Wilson, J., Chastine, J., Gandy, M. “The Duran Duran Project: The Augmented Reality Toolkit in Live Performance“. The First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, 2002. (Duran Duran Collaboration: Augmented Reality Technology in Live Performance (2000–2001))
- ^ Sydney band Lost Valentinos launched the world’s first interactive AR music video on 16 October 2009, where users could print out 5 markers representing a pre-recorded performance from each band member which they could interact with live and in real-time via their computer webcam and record as their own unique music video clips to share viaYouTubeGizmodo: Sydney Band Uses Augmented Reality For Video Clip
- ^ Pendlebury, Ty. (2009-10-19) Augmented reality in Aussie film clip. cnet. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Lego using AR for commercial purposes. Geek.com (19 April 2010). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Fawkes, Piers. (2011-08-12) Disney’s AR mirror. Psfk.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^  FMM.com. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- ^ Nissan website. Nissanusa.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Vlad Savov. “Best Buy goes 3D, even augmented reality isn’t safe from advertising”.
- ^ AR at Disney. Adsoftheworld.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ “Futuristic Super 8 Ads Remind Us of Minority Report”. PC World.
- ^ iPhone application Word Lens injects subtitles into the desired language in video.  Alexia Tsotsis “Word Lens Translates Words Inside of Images. Yes Really.” TechCrunch(16 December 2010)
- ^  N.B. “Word Lens: This changes everything” The Economist: Gulliver blog (18 December 2010)
- ^ “Knowledge-based augmented reality”. ACM. July, 1993.
- ^ a b L. B. Rosenberg. The Use of Virtual Fixtures As Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments. Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992.
- ^ a b L. B. Rosenberg, “The Use of Virtual Fixtures to Enhance Operator Performance in Telepresence Environments” SPIE Telemanipulator Technology, 1993.
- ^ Wagner, Daniel (29 September 2009). “First Steps Towards Handheld Augmented Reality”. ACM. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
- ^ Pikarski, Wayne and Thomas, Bruce (1 October 2001).“Tinmith-Metro: New Outdoor Techniques for Creating City Models with an Augmented Reality Wearable Computer”. IEEE. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- ^ R. Behringer, and N. Ahuja. Image registration for Augmented Reality. Advanced Displays and Interactive Displays Federated Laboratory First Annual Symposium, College Park, MD, January 1997.
- ^ R. Behringer, C. Tam, J. McGee, V. Sundareswaran, Marius Vassiliou. Two Wearable Testbeds for Augmented Reality: itWARNS and WIMMIS. ISWC 2000, Atlanta, 16–17 October 2000.
- ^ R. Behringer, G. Klinker,. D. Mizell (eds.). Augmented Reality – Placing Artificial Objects in Real Scenes. Proceedings of IWAR ’98. A.K.Peters, Natick, 1999. ISBN 1-56881-098-9
- ^ “IWAR’99”.
- ^ “ISAR 2000”.
- ^ “ISAR 2001”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2002”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2003”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2004”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2005”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2006”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2007”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2008”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2009”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2010”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2011”.
- ^ “ISMAR 2012”.
- ^ Miles, Stuart. “Top 10 uses of augmented reality in the movies”. AR Week. Pocket-lint.com. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- ^ Dybis, Karen (6 August 2010). “Some Genuine Detroit ‘School Pride'”. Time. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- ^ Toto, Serkan. Augmented Reality? The Tuttuki Bako box needs your finger to play with virtual characters. CrunchGear. 8 October 2008.
- ^ The Master Key (novel) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ http://www.google.com/patents?q=3050870
- ^ Tom Caudell. Ece.unm.edu. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Wellner, Pierre. “Computer Augmented Environments: back to the real world”. ACM. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- ^ Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training. Jmbaai.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Wikitude AR Travel Guide. Youtube.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ Saqoosha. Saqoosha (30 January 2009). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ BBC SixthSense blurs digital and the real.
- ^  First real augmented reality goggles with informative transparent glass